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Indian States & its Capital | A Draft of Indian History

INDIAN 

INDIA is also called as BHARAT or HINDUSTAN, official name of INDIA is REPUBLIC of INDIA, India was named after the Indus River by the Britishers, featuring its feminine beauty to the country. India positions as seventh largest country in the world with 17% of the world’s population. India lengthens 3214KM i.e. North to South and its breath is 2933km i.e East to West. 

Peninsular India

Peninsular India is surrounded by three sides of water of its south end, topographically peninsular India looks like inverted vast triangle bounded by three sides of water i.e west region by Arabian Sea, East region by Bay of Bengal & south towards its triangular tip the largest Indian Ocean. India is the second largest peninsula in the world due to its inhabitants. India’s current population is approximately 1380004385 people according to the latest worldometer mid year 2020 reports of United Nations Data.  India is a tropical country, as its subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winter as compared to Central Asia. India’s climatic condition has its own extraordinary different climatic regions ranging from tropical in the southern India and alpine in the northern India i.e. Himalayas.  

Indian Culture & Heritage

India is land which holds it culture and its heritage from olden days, India’s culture and heritages is a blend of diverse sub-cultures brought in by many people those who migrated for many reasons like invasions or for trade and commerce. India’s religion, languages, dance, music, architecture, food and customs differ from one place to the other or state to state. As India has the strong historical influences of various empires its is often named as an combination of several culture evidences from the beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization. 

Glance on Indian Constitution 

India is the world largest democracy country, from its Independence from British Empire in Aug 15th 1947. The nation adopted the constitution of India on 26th Jan 1950 and replaced India is a Parliamentary Secular Democratic Republic. In Indian President of the India is the first citizen of the country and also the HEAD of STATE and the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government.  India positions the dual polity system or double government (Federal) which comprises of CENTRAL AUTHORITY for central & State at the periphery. The constitution of India describes the organizational power and limitations for both the central & state governments. The council of States or Rajya Sabha or upper house of the bicameral parliament of India which represents the states of Indian federation and the lower house or the Lok Sabha  or House of the people which represents the people of India as a One. 

Partition of States on Linguistic Bases 

The State Reorganization Act of India have changed the country since 60 years. In 1956, August, the parliament enacted the State Reorganization Act, the states are redrawn on the linguistic bases which made many more states to be created and made India remains the largest collective administrative reorganizations of States. Until this linguistic partition India was retained by the British political


boundaries left by them. The main reason for the major states reorganization took place due to the death of Thiru Sreeramulu a freedom fighter who was with Gandhi. Thiru Sreeramulu took the same non-violence in –hand went on a hunger strike to pressure government in demand for separate of land for Telugu and Tamil speaking regions in the Tamil dominant Madras Presidency. As the demand for separation of Indian states on linguistic manner was old as , the British framed Orissa from the oriya speaking people majority and Bangal in 1936, this was also committed by congress by itself to the idea before  Independence.  Our Prime Mister, Thiru. Jawarharlal Nehru, resisted the demands under linguistic separation of States until the death of Thiru. Sreeramalu, so Prime minister was forced to announce Andra Pradesh in 1953. This same year Prime minister appointed the State Reorganization Act to manage the existing demands for the new states, this commission conducted public hearing  with the people across India in 1955 regarding the consolidation and separation of Sates, this Act also implemented many but not all. During 1969 to 1973, the boundaries of Madras and Mysore was defined and renamed as Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, at the same time Andhra Pradesh & Kerala borders was also defined. Most parts of northern circle was left untouched expect few locations added to todays existing States such as Vindhya Pradesh to Madhya Pradesh, Patiala to Punjab and Ajmer to Rajasthan. 

The more of demand was faced by India on its linguistic partition, Marathi & Gujarati speakers in Bombay was looking for separate state and both want Bombay city. The samyukta Maharashtra Movement in 1960 ended in formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat, as Bombay renamed as Maharashtra.  Similarly 1966 Punjab movement to separate Sikh and Hindu majority was raised then  Punjab and Haryana was formed.  Also by adding Shimla and Kulu from Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh got the prestige of State in 1971, as it was being the Union Territory until then. In today’s India, the North Eastern parts of Indian States like Manipur, Tripura (both Union territory) and Meghalaya (a sub-state) was separated as each individual state in 1972. Mizoram, was an independent State in 1987 as it was also a union territory. The combination of this north east parts was earlier called as The North Eastern Frontier or Arunachal Pradesh.

Major Changes in Boundaries of Indian States was during

1951 – 1956

The State Reorganization Act 

1953

Andhra Pradesh

1954

Pondicherry transferred to India from French and become Union Territory in 1962

1960

Maharashtra & Gujarat  (North Eastern frontiers demand was raised

1961

Dadra and Haveli as Union Territory transferred from Portuguese 

1966

Punjab & Haryana

1969 to 1973

Boundaries defined for Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Madras renamed as Tamil Nadu and Mysore renamed as Karnataka. 

1971

Himachal Pradesh

1972

Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya

1987

Mizoram

2000

Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttaranchal

2014

Telangana


2020, Current Indian States & its Capital

President of India – Thiru Ram Nath Kovind, he was born on 1st Oct 1945, at Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh District. He was the former Governor of Bihar from 16 Aug  2015 to 21 Jun 2017.

Vice President of India – Thiru Venkaiah Naidu, he was born on 1st July 1949, Chavatapalem Nellor District of Andra Pradesh. 

Prime Minister of India – Thiru Narendra Modi, he was born on 17th Sep 1950 in a small town of Gujarat.  Apart from his duty he will be heading the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Space and all important issues and other portfolios those not allotted to any Minister. 

In today’s federal India comprises 28 States and 8 Union Territory on total 36 entitles. These states and Union Territory was subdivided into Districts 

S No.

Name of the States

State Capital

Chief Minister

1

Andhra Pradesh

Amaravati 

Thiru Jagan Mohan Reddy

2

Arunachal Pradesh 

Itanagar

Thiru Pema Khandu

3

Assam

Dispur

Thiru Sarbananda Sonowal

4

Bihar

Patna

Thiru Nitish Kumar

5

Chhattisgarh

Raipur

Thiru Bupesh Beghel

6

Delhi (NCT)

New Delhi

Thiru Arvind Kejriwal

7

Goa

Panaji

Thiru Pramod Sawant

8

Gujarat

Gandhi Nagar

Thiru Vijaybhai R Rupani

9

Haryana

Chandigarh

Thiru Manohar Lal

10

Himachal Pradesh

Shimla

Thiru Jairam Thakur

11

Jharkhand

Ranchi

Thiru Hemant Soren

12

Karnataka

Bengaluru

Thiru BS Yediyurappa

13

Kerala

Thiruvanathapuram

Thiru Pinarayi Vijayan

14

Madhya Pradesh

Bhopal

Thiru Shivraj Singh Chouhan

15

Maharashtra

Mumbai

Thiru Uddhav Thackeray

16

Manipur

Imphal

Thiru N. Biren Singh

17

Meghalaya

Shillong

Thiru Conrad Kongkal Sangma

18

Mizoram

Aizawl

Thiru Pu Zoramthanga

19

Nagaland

Kohima

Thiru Nelphiu Rio

20

Odisha

Bhubaneswar

Thiru Naveen Patnaik

21

Puducherry (UT)

Pondicherry

Thiru V. Narayanasamy

22

Punjab

Chandigarh

Thiru Capt. Amarinder Singh

23

Rajasthan

Jaipur

Thiru Ashok Gehlot

24

Sikkim

Gangtok

Thiru PS Golay

25

Tamil Nadu

Chennai

Thiru Edappadi K Palaniswami

26

Telangana

Hyderabad

Thiru K.Chandrasekhar Rao

27

Tripura

Agartala

Thiru Biplab Kumar Deb

28

Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow

Thiru Yogi Aditya Nath

29

Uttarakhand

Dehradun

Thiru Trivendra Singh Rawat

30

West Bengal

Kolkata

Km Mamata Banerjee

S No.

Union Territory 

Capital

Lieutenant Governor & Administrator

1

Andaman & Nicobar Island 

Port Blair

Admiral  DK Joshi  (Lt. Governor)

2

Chandigarh 

Chandigarh

Thiru VP Singh Badnore (Administrator)

3

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu 

Daman

Thiru Praful  Patel (Administrator)

4

Jammu & Kashmir 

Srinagar in Summer

Jammu in Winter

Thiru Manoj Sinha  (Lt. Governor)

5

Lakshadeep 

Kavaratti 

Thiru Dineshwar Sharma IPS (Administrator)

6

Ladakh

Leh in Summer

Kargil in WInter

Thiru Radha Krishna Mathur  (Lt . Governor)

7

Puducherry 

Pudhucherry

Dr. Kiran Bedi IPS Rtd (Lt. Governor)

8

Delhi (NCT) 

New Dehi

Thiru Anil Baijal  (Lt Governor )

“Thank You”

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